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May 29, 2010

Eddy Merckx, The Cannibal


Edouard Louis Joseph, Baron Merckx (born 17 June 1945 in Meensel-Kiezegemin Belgium, better known as Eddy Merckx, is a former professional cyclist. The French magazine Vélo called him "the most accomplished rider that cycling has ever known." The American publication, VeloNews, called him the greatest and most successful cyclist of all time. He won the Tour de France five times, won all the classics except Paris-Tours, won the Giro d'Italia five times and the Vuelta a España, won the world championship as an amateur and a professional, and broke the world hour record. Definately the best cyclist of all times.

May 28, 2010

Carlos Mavroleon - Κάρλος Μαυρολέων


It is a last moment decision, not to post anything for Carlos Mavroleon. Only a simple reference of his name is enough for the people they "know". One more Great Greek. He is a Legend.

May 23, 2010

The Black Dahlia Murder


Elizabeth Short(July 29, 1924 – ca. January 15, 1947) was an American woman and the victim of a gruesome and much-publicized murder. She acquired the nickname Black Dahlia after moving to California. Short was found mutilated, her body severed at the waist, on January 15, 1947 in Leimert Park, Los Angeles, California. Short's unsolved murder has been the source of widespread speculation along with several books and film adaptations.

The body of Elizabeth Short was found on January 15, 1947, in a vacant lot located in the Leimert Park area of Los Angeles near 39th Street and Norton Avenue. Her severely mutilated body had been severed at the waist and drained of blood and her face was slashed from the corners of her mouth toward her ears. She had been "posed" with her hands over her head and elbows bent at right angles. The autopsy stated Short was 5 feet 5 inches (1.65 m), weighed 115 pounds (52 kg), had light blue eyes, brown hair, and badly decayed teeth.

Short was buried at the Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland, California. After her other sisters had grown and married, Short's mother moved to Oakland to be near her daughter's grave.

May 21, 2010

Artem Mikoyan (1905-1970)


Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan was born in 1905, in the Armenian village of Sanahin.
He completed his basic education and took a job as a machine-tool operator in Rostov. Then in "Dynamo" factory in Moscow. He was conscripted into the military.

In 1940 under the leadership of Artem Mikoyan jointly with Mikhail Gurevich MiG-3 fighter was created.
Artem Mikoyan was a genius who brought glory to his country. The whole world uses his inventions . He was recognized as a great aircraft designer not only in his Motherland, but also abroad.
MiGs have been in the armament of air forces, Soviet and foreign, for over 50 years. Mikoyan's fighters showed 55 world records.

Artem Mikoyan died on 9 December 1970.

Ernesto 'Che' Guevara


Date of Birth: 14 June 1928, Rosario, Argentina
Date of Death: 9 October 1967, La Higuera, Bolivia (executed by firing squad)
Nickname: El Fuser-Che
Height: 5'11½" (1.82 m)

Ernesto Guevara de la Serna was born to a middle-class family in Rosario, Santa Fe Province, Argentina on June 14, 1928. Disgusted by the corrupt Argentine militarist government, Guevara became a dedicated Marxist while still in his teens. As a student, he vowed to dedicate his life to revolutionary causes and in 1953 he received a medical degree from the University of Buenos Aires. He left Argentina later that year to take part in a Communist revolt in Guatemala. There he adopted his revolutionary nickname, nom de guerre Che, the local slang for "pal." When the revolution in Guatemala failed the following year, Che fled to Mexico where he was introduced to another Communist revolutionary in exile, Fidel Castro. Joining Castro's July 26 Movement, named after the date of Castro's aborted 1953 revolution in Cuba, Che Guevara sailed with Castro and over 80 guerrilla troops to Cuba where they landed on December 2, 1956, bent on overthrowing General Fulgencio Batista's government. After the invasion force was almost decimated by government troops and air strikes, Castro, Guevara and about 10 others hid out on the Sierra Mastera mountains of southern Cuba. In July 1957, Che was assigned command of half of Castro's forces with the rank of Comandante, a title he shared only with Castro himself. For the next year and a half, he led his insurgents against the government forces in the province of Las Villas, while growing hatred to Batista's government fueled widespread support to Castro's forces, which steadily grew in size. Che's successful attack against the government troops in Santa Clara in December 1958 sealed the victory of Castro's forces. Batista's fled into exhile on January 1, 1959 and Castro's troops then marched unopposed into Havana a week later. After Castro assumed power, Che became one of his most trusted advisors and a leading international revolutionary. Che became the Cuban minister of agriculture and in 1960 wrote a book titled "Guerilla Warfare," a manual for Third World insurgents as part of his plan to bring Communism throught the world. Che resigned his post in Cuba in 1965 and traveled widely to Africa and other insurgent hot spots in the world, including the Belgian Congo, to organize Communist revolts as well as train Cuban contingents there and teach them the French colonial language. In November 1966, Che surfaced in Bolivia to organize another revolt by the local Communist peasants. But the revolution in Bolivia only received lukewarm support from many of the poorly-educated, non-Spanish-speaking peasants who preferred to support the government, not caring for foreign insurgents. After a long and drawn out campaign, Che's revolt in Bolivia came to an abrupt end on October 7, 1967 when he and the surviving members of his group were captured by government Bolivian soldiers. Two days later, on October 9, 1967, Che was executed by a Bolivian firing squad, who were apparently acting under orders from the CIA which were training the Bolivian army.

Albert Einstein, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921


Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree.

In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal.

Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

Marco Pantani, Il Pirata


Marco Pantani (January 13, 1970–February 14, 2004) was an Italian road racing cyclist, one of the best climbers in professional road bicycle racing. He won the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia in 1998. He was known as 'Il Pirata' (the pirate) because of the bandana he wore. His career was beset by drug abuse allegations after a failed blood test in the 1999 Giro d'Italia. He died after a cocaine overdose in 2004.

Pantani was born in Cesena, Romagna. At 1.72m and 57 kg (5 ft 8 in, 126 lb/9 st),Marco Pantani had the classic build for a mountain climber.
Pantani's climbing style was to stay on the lower section of his handlebars, often pedaling out of the saddle. Bianchi built for him a bike with a longer steerer tube for higher handlebars.

During the early evening of 14 February 2004 Pantani was found dead at a hotel in Rimini, Italy. An autopsy revealed he a cerebral edema and heart failure, and a coroner's inquest revealed acute cocaine poisoning. Mario Cipollini said "I am devastated. It's a tragedy of enormous proportions for everyone involved in cycling. I'm lost for words."

Pantani was buried in his hometown, Cesenatico. Twenty thousand mourners were at his funeral.

World's Tallest Buildings


Rank       Building                   city                                       Year      m        ft
1.  (formerly Burj Dubai),The United Arab Emirates             2010   828    2,716
2. Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan                                              2004    508    1,667
3. World Financial Center, Shanghai, China                         2008    492    1,614
4. Petronas Tower 1, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia                    1998    452    1,483
5. Petronas Tower 2, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia                    1998    452    1,483
6. Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China                     2009    450    1,476
7. Sears Tower, Chicago                                                     1974    442    1,451
8. Guangzhou West Tower, Guangzhou, China                     2009    438    1,435
9. Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China                                    1999    421    1,381
10. Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong               2003    415    1,362
11. Trump International Hotel, Chicago, U.S.                       2009    415    1,362
12. CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, China                                     1996    391    1,283
13. Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, China                               1996     384   1,260
14. Empire State Building, New York                                  1931     381    1,250
15. Central Plaza, Hong Kong                                             1992     374    1,227
16. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong                                1989     367    1,205
17. Bank of America Tower, New York City, U.S.             2009     366    1,200
18. Almas Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates                  2009     363    1,191
19. Emirates Tower One, Dubai, United Arab Emirates       1999     355    1,165
20. Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan                         1997     348    1,140
21. Aon Centre, Chicago                                                    1973     346    1,136
22. The Center, Hong Kong                                               1998      346   1,135
23. John Hancock Center, Chicago                                    1969     344    1,127
24. Rose Tower, Dubai                                                      2007     333    1,093
25. Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai                            2006      333    1,093
26. Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, China                       2007      331    1,087
27. Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, N. Korea                        1995     330    1,083
28. China World Trade Center, Beijing, China                   2009      330    1,083
29. The Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates                      2009      328    1,076
30. Q1, Gold Coast, Australia                                           2005      323    1,058
31. Burj al Arab Hotel, Dubai                                            1999      321    1,053
32. Chrysler Building, New York                                       1930      319    1,046
33. Nina Tower I, Hong Kong                                           2006      319    1,046
34. New York Times Building, New York                         2007      319    1,046
35. Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta                                   1993       317    1,039
36. U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles                                   1990       310    1,018
37. Menara Telekom Hdq, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia          1999       310    1,017
38. Emirates Tower Two, Dubai                                        2000       309    1,014
39. AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago                       1989       307    1,007
40. The Address Downtown Burj Dubai, Dubai, U.A.E.     2008       306    1,004
41. JP Morgan Chase Tower, Houston                              1982        305    1,002
42. Baiyoke Tower II, Bangkok                                         1997       304       997
43. Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago                                     1990       303       995
44. Wells Fargo Plaza, Houston                                         1983       302       992
45. Kingdom Centre, Riyadh                                             2002        302       992
46. Aspire Tower, Doha                                                   2006        300       984
47. Arraya 2, Kuwait City, Kuwait                                    2009        300      984
48. One Island East Centre, Hong Kong, China                 2008        298      979
49. First Bank Tower, Toronto                                          1975        298      978
50. Shanghai Wheelock Square, Shanghai, China               2009        298      978
51. Eureka Tower, Melbourne                                           2006        297      975
52. Comcast Center, Philadelphia, U.S.                             2008        297      975
53. Landmark Tower, Yokohama, Japan                           1993        296      971
54. Emirates Crown, Dubai, U.A.E                                    2008        296      971
55. 311 South Wacker Drive, Chicago                               1990        293      961
56. SEG Plaza, Shenzhen, China                                        2000        292      957
57. American International Building, New York                  1932        290      952
58. Key Tower, Cleveland                                                 1991        289      947
59. Plaza 66, Shanghai                                                       2001        288      945
60. One Liberty Place, Philadelphia                                    1987        288      945
61. Columbia Center, Seattle, U.S.                                    1985         285     937
62. Millennium Tower, Dubai                                             2006         285     935
63. Sunjoy Tomorrow Square, Shanghai                            2003         285     934
64. Chongqing World Trade Center, Chongqing, China      2005         283     929
65. Cheung Kong Center, Hong Kong                               1999         283     929
66. The Trump Building, New York                                   1930         283     927
67. Bank of America Plaza, Dallas                                     1985         281     921
68. United Overseas Bank Plaza, Singapore                      1992          280     919
69. Republic Plaza, Singapore                                           1995          280     919
70. Overseas Union Bank Centre, Singapore                     1986          280     919
71. Citigroup Center, New York                                       1977          279     915
72. Hong Kong New World Tower, Shanghai                   2002          278     913
73. Diwang Int. Commerce Center, Nanning, China           2006          276     906
74. Scotia Plaza, Toronto                                                  1989          275     902
75. Williams Tower, Houston                                            1983           275    901
76. Moscow, Moscow                                                      2009          274    900
77. Wuhan World Trade Tower, Wuhan, China                 1998          273    896
78. Cullinan North Tower, Hong Kong                              2007          270    886
79. Cullinan South Tower, Hong Kong                              2007          270    886
80. Renaissance Tower, Dallas                                          1975          270    886
81. China Int. Center Tower B, Guangzhou, China             2007          270    884
82. Dapeng International Plaza, Guangzhou, China             2006          269    883
83. One Luijiazui, Shanghai, China                                     2008          269    883
84. 21st Century Tower, Dubai                                          2003          269    883
85. Naberezhnaya Tower C, Moscow                                2007         268    881
86. Al Faisaliah Center, Riyadh                                          2000          267    876
87. 900 North Michigan Ave., Chicago                              1989          265    871
88. Bank of America Corporate Center, Charlotte              1992          265    871
89. SunTrust Plaza, Atlanta                                                 1992         265     871
90. Al Kazim Tower 1, Dubai, U.A.E                                 2008         265     871
91. Al Kazim Tower 2, Dubai, U.A.E                                 2008         265     871
92. BOCOM Financial Towers, Shanghai                           1999         265     869
93. 120 Collins Street, Melbourne                                      1991         265     869
94. Triumph Palace, Moscow                                             2005         264     866
95. Tower Palace Three, Tower G, Seoul                           2004         264     865
96. Trump World Tower, New York                                  2001         262     861
97. Shenzhen Special Zone Daily Tower, Shenzhen, China   1998         262     860
98. Water Tower Place, Chicago                                        1976         262     859
99. Grand Gateway Plaza I, Shanghai                                  2005         262     859
100. Grand Gateway Plaza II, Shanghai                               2005         262     859

May 20, 2010

Acropolis, Athens


The Acropolis of Athens and its monuments are universal symbols of the classical spirit and civilization and form the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek Antiquity to the world. In the second half of the fifth century bc, Athens, following the victory against the Persians and the establishment of democracy, took a leading position amongst the other city-states of the ancient world. In the age that followed, as thought and art flourished, an exceptional group of artists put into effect the ambitious plans of Athenian statesman Pericles and, under the inspired guidance of the sculptor Pheidias, transformed the rocky hill into a unique monument of thought and the arts. The most important monuments were built during that time: the Parthenon, built by Ictinus, the Erechtheon, the Propylaea, the monumental entrance to the Acropolis, designed by Mnesicles and the small temple Athena Nike.

Epsilon Team - Ομάδα Έψιλον


The Epsilon Team (Greek: Ομάδα Έψιλον, Omada Epsilon) is a conspiracy theory concerning a secret society consisting of an elite team of Greek engineers, academics, pilots, powerful businessmen and politicians.
Epsilon Team's supposed symbol is a Delphic Epsilon, ie two Epsilons connected back to back and supposedly appearing on ancient Greek and Inca monuments and even on some sighted "UFOs".
It is also theorized that the debris salvaged from the Roswell UFO Incident have the Greek word "Ελευθερία" (Freedom) on them.
No clear timeline of the Epsilon team can be traced, mainly because people who support its existence or claim to be members, wannabees, connaisseurs or even its representatives all give very different and incoherent versions of the story.

Some of them claim that the Epsilon team has existed in some form since the first forms of Greek civilization , and that its members included ancient philosophers, historians, scientists and politicians like Plato, Aristoteles, Pericles, Socrates and so on.

Others don't dwell into antiquity but claim that the "conteporary" form of the Epsilon team as a secret society dates back to the post World War 2 period, founded as a sercet society by Greek scientists working in the United States and economically backed up by people like Aristotelis Onassis and others (mostly people already deceased at the moment of "acknowledgment").

One of the few common points is however that the Epsilon team has always helped and protected the Greek People and culture through the centuries, yet all supporters fail to give a satisfactory answer and use elusive statements when asked where the Epsilon team was when hardships such as the fall of Constantinople and the subsequent 400-year Ottoman dominion was imposed on Greece, when the Minor Asia Catastrophe took place in 1922 and when other minor or major Ethnic problems like the Cyprus dispute or the Imia Crisis took place.


The Epsilon Team (In Greek: Ομάδα Έψιλον,Omada Epsilon) is an urban legend about a probably entirely imaginary secret society consisting of an elite team of Greek engineers, academics, pilots, powerful businessmen and politicians etc. manufacturing and piloting UFOs and supposedly working for major international forces or even secretly ruling the United States of America.

Vlad Tepes (1431 - 1476) The Impaler - Prince of Wallachia - Son of Vlad Dracul (Knight of the Order of the Dragon) - Grandson of Mircea the Great, Voevod of Wallachia - "Dracula"


Vlad III was born in November or December of 1431 in the Transylvanian city of Sighisoara. At the time his father, Vlad II (Vlad Dracul), was living in exile in Transylvania. The house where he was born is still standing. It was located in a prosperous neighborhood surrounded by the homes of Saxon and Magyar merchants and the townhouses of the nobility.
Click to Enlarge
Little is known about the early years of Vlad III’s life. He had an older brother, Mircea, and a younger brother, Radu the Handsome. His early education was left in the hands of his mother, a Transylvanian noblewoman, and her family. His real education began in 1436 after his father succeeded in claiming the Wallachian throne by killing his Danesti rival. His training was typical to that of the sons of nobility throughout Europe. His first tutor in his apprenticeship to knighthood was an elderly boyar who had fought against the Turks at the battle of Nicolopolis. Vlad learned all the skills of war and peace that were deemed necessary for a Christian knight.
In 1444, at the age of thirteen, young Vlad and his brother Radu were sent to Adrianople as hostages, to appease the Sultan. He remained there until 1448, at which time he was released by the Turks, who supported him as their candidate for the Wallachian throne. Vlad’s younger brother apparently chose to remain in Turkey, where he had grown up. (Radu is later supported by the Turks as a candidate for the Wallachian throne, in opposition to his own brother, Vlad.)
As previously noted, Vlad III’s initial reign was quite short (two months), and it was not until 1456, under the support of Hunyadi and the Kingdom of Hungary that he returned to the throne. He established Tirgoviste as his capitol city, and began to build his castle some distance away in the mountains near the Arges River.
Vlad usually had a horse attached to each of the victim’s legs and a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body. The end of the stake was usually oiled and care was taken that the stake not be too sharp, else the victim might die too rapidly from shock. Normally the stake was inserted into the body through the buttocks and was often forced through the body until it emerged from the mouth. However, there were many instances where victims were impaled through other body orifices or through the abdomen or chest. Infants were sometimes impaled on the stake forced through their mother’s chests. The records indicate that victims were sometimes impaled so that they hung upside down on the stake.

Vlad Dracula was killed in battle against the Turks near the town of Bucharest in December of 1476. Some reports indicate that he was assassinated by disloyal Wallachian boyars just as he was about to sweep the Turks from the field. Other accounts have him falling in defeat, surrounded by the ranks of his loyal Moldavian bodyguard. Still other reports claim that Vlad, at the moment of victory, was accidentally struck down by one of his own men. The one undisputed fact is that ultimately his body was decapitated by the Turks and his head sent to Constantinople where the sultan had it displayed on a stake as proof that the horrible Impaler was finally dead. He was reportedly buried at Snagov, an island monastery located near Bucharest.

1453 - The Fall of Constantinople


The siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily fortified cities in the world, took place in 1453. Sultan Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, led the assault. The city was defended by, at most, 10,000 men. The Turks had between 100,000 and 150,000 men on their side. The siege lasted for fifty days. The Turks employed various important war tactics in taking over the city. They used huge cannon to destroy the walls, warships were used to the cut the city's sea defense. They also used an extensive infantry to engulf the city.
After using his heavy artillery to form a breach in the wall, the fist attack was launched upon Constantinople on a May morning at 1:00 a.m. The shout of men could be heard miles away. This fist attack was led by the Bashi-bazouks. They tried to attack the weakest point in the walls. They knew they were outnumbered and out skilled, but they still fought with passion. After fighting for two hours, they were called to retreat.
The second attack was brought on by the Anatolian Turks from Ishak's army. This army could easily be recognized by their specialized uniforms. This army was also more organized than the first. They used their cannons to blast through the walls of the city. By using trumpets and other noises they were able to break the concentration of their opponents. They were the first army to enter the city. The Christians were ready for them as they entered. They were able to massacre much of the army from this attack. This attack was called off at dawn.
Before the army was able to gain strength and order, another attack feel upon them. Mehmet's favorite set of troops called the Janissaries started to attack. They launched arrows, missiles, bullets, stones and javelins at the enemy. They maintained perfect unity in this attack, unlike the other attempts. This battle, at the stockade, was a long tiring battle for the troops. The soldiers fought in hand-to-hand combat. Someone had to give. It was the Christians. The Turks remembered a port called the Kerkoporta. They noticed it had accidentally been left open by the Christians. The Christian army frequently used that gate to try to penetrate the flank of the Turkish army. They stormed the gate, but the Christians were able to stop them before completely entering the city.
While battles were being fought on land, the Turks were also trying to take control of the sea. Many ships were placed in the Golden Horn and off of the Marmora shore to help siege the city. Many of the soldiers came from these ships to aid the army on land. Once the signal was sent, troops flooded off of these ships to take down the harbor walls and start looting the city.
The City was now completely taken over by the Turks. Mehmed renamed the city Istanbul. To further glorify the city he built mosques, palaces, monuments and a system of aqueducts. The city was now officially claimed for Islam. New rules and regulations came about for the conquered. The Greeks were to form communities within the empire called milets. The Christians were still allowed to practice their religion, but had to dress in distinguishing attire and could not bear arms. So came the end to the great city of Constantinople.


1453: Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople
1454: Gutenberg perfects printing with moveable type
1469: Marriage of Ferdinand & Isabella, uniting Spain
1480: Spanish Inquisition begins
1485: Henry VII defeats Richard III ending War of the Roses in England
1492: Spain pushes Moors out of Granada after 800 years and expels Jews from Spain
1503: Da Vinci paints "Mona Lisa"
1509: Henry VIII becomes king of England; African slave trade with the New World begins
1517: Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to church door, launching Protestant Reformation Coffee introduced into Europe
1519: Magellan begins round-the-world voyage

1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England

1570: Spanish introduce potato to Europe

1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in France--Hundreds of Huguenots killed by Catholics



May 18, 2010

Turkish Prime Minister visits Greece


Breaking Out
Next Back Kurdish and Armenian protestors clash with Greek police during a demonstration against Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan during his visit, in Athens.

Friday, May. 14, 2010

Time Magazine - Pictures of the day

SHIPPING: The New Argonauts - Time Magazine (Monday, Aug. 06, 1956) a small text of the article


Lord of the 697-ton Creole, and the hero of a new Greek legend, is Stavros Spyros Niarchos, 47, world's biggest independent shipowner. The legend of Niarchos, fondly referred to in the world's press as the "Golden Greek," is a blurred montage of shipboard launching parties, at which he bestows diamond bracelets and gold Faberge cigarette boxes on the beautiful and highborn women (e.g., the Duchess of Kent) who christen his ships, repartee in the royal enclosure at Ascot, champagne flowing like home brut in the nightclubs of London and Paris. Unlike most legends, it is woven from whole fact.
When the world's most prized collection of antique French silver went on sale.
Niarchos put up $250,000 to keep it intact for the Louvre. On his visits to Greece, Niarchos hands out gold sovereigns on the streets of Athens like a rich man's John D. Rockefeller. Some of his more offhand gestures have included chartering a steamship for a royalty-only romp in 1954 chaperoned by Greece's Queen Frederika. Niarchos obligingly provided another steamer last summer so that Elsa Maxwell could take an all-star supporting cast (Olivia de Havilland, Aly Khan, the Duke and Duchess of Argyll) on a Mediterranean junket while Niarchos cruised the other end of the sea aboard the Creole; he was "too busy" to go along.

Definitions of Π


Π is defined as:
1: the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet...
2 a: the symbol pi denoting the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
   b: the ratio itself: a transcendental number having a value to eight decimal places of 3.14159265"

Focus Το εξώφυλλο


Αξιότιμε κύριε Helmut Markwort, αρχισυντάκτη του περιοδικού Focus Το εξώφυλλο του περιοδικού σας (αριστερά) είναι κακόγουστο και χυδαίο. Ανησυχείτε για τα «φράγκα» σας και αυτό δεν σας εμποδίζει να προσβάλλετε την ιστορία και τον πολιτισμό της χώρας μας. Πολιτισμός κ. Markwort είναι το εξώφυλλο του περιοδικού της ομάδας μας (δεξιά). Πολιτισμός είναι ο Σάτυρος του Αρχαιολογικού Μουσείο Αθηνών. Ελπίζουμε να τον γνωρίζετε. Η σημερινή έκδοση του περιοδικού μας και η παρουσία του Σατύρου είναι αφιερωμένη σε εσάς, στους συνεργάτες σας και στο έγκυρο περιοδικό σας!

Ας σταθούμε όμως στα «φράγκα» γιατί, από όλα όσα γράφετε, αυτά και μόνο φαίνεται να σας ενδιαφέρουν. Λέμε λοιπόν: ας πληρώσει η Γερμανία τις αποζημιώσεις για τα εγκλήματα που έγιναν στην Ελλάδα στη διάρκεια του Δεύτερου Παγκόσμιου Πολέμου, ας επιστρέψει το χρυσό που υφάρπαξε από τη χώρα μου και τότε θα δούμε ποιος χρωστάει ποιόν! Όσο για τους απατεώνες, σας συμβουλεύουμε να τους ψάξετε στις φυλακές του Μονάχου. Απάτη δεν γίνεται μόνο με έναν. Χρειάζονται τουλάχιστον δύο! Το όνομα SIEMENS, das "Flaggschiff" Deutschlands και οι δωροδοκίες, σας θυμίζουν τίποτα;

Η πρέπει να φρεσκάρουμε τη μνήμη σας για τα υποβρύχια designed in Germany που "μπατάρουν" στου Σκαραμαγκά και τα τανκ που δεν δέχεται να "ψωνίσει" η Ελλάδα από τη χώρα σας; Η μήπως δεν γνωρίζατε πως η Γερμανία έχει μεταβληθεί τα τελευταία χρόνια στο μεγαλύτερο προμηθευτή οπλικών συστημάτων της Ελλάδας και πιέζει ασφυκτικά με κάθε τρόπο τη χώρα μου να αγοράσει το Eurofighter;
Δε φταίτε όμως εσείς. Φταίει ο Έλληνας πολίτης που ανέχεται προσβολές σαν τη δική σας αλλά και την ανεπάρκεια των πολιτικών, που κακώς επέλεξε να τον κυβερνούν! Φιλικά Εθελοντική Ομάδα Δράσης Ν. Πιερίας

May 17, 2010



On August 18th, 1949, Adi Dassler first registered adidas in the commercial register (Handelsregister) in Fürth (near Herzogenaurach). The official name of the company back then was “Adolf Dassler adidas Sportschuhfabrik”. First used in 1949, the 3-Stripes would not stay confined to their birthplace Herzogenaurach but started their victory lap around the world early on to become the most famous symbol and key identifier of adidas.

Aristotle Onassis


Aristotle Onassis (1906-1975) is probably the most famous Greek businessman and he was considered one of the richest man in the world, when he was alive. Born in Smyrna, now Izmir Turkey, to Greek parents, he left to Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1922 with 63 dollars in his pocket and managed to make a vast fortune, out of tobacco trade at first and then of shipping. Although his methods were not always legal, he managed to exploit his persuasive nature, acquaintances and good luck to get rich.

Onassis married twice. His first marriage to Athina Livanos gave him two children, a daughter and a son. His second marriage was to Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of the murdered US President John Kennedy. He also had a long-term affair to opera diva Maria Callas, from 1957 till 1968, when he married Jacqueline Kennedy in his private Greek island, Scorpios, a few miles off the coastline of Lefkada Greece. Aristotle Onassis died from myasthenia gravis in 1975 in Paris, not bearing the tragic death of his beloved son, Alexander, in 1973.

Leonidas, king of Sparta


Leonidas (540-480 BC), the legendary king of Sparta, and the Battle of Thermopylae is one of the most brilliant events of the ancient Greek history, a great act of courage and self-sacrifice. This man and the battle itself has inspired since then many artists, poets and film-makers that hymn the spirit of him and his Spartans.
Little is known about the life of Leonidas before the Battle of Thermopylae. Historians believe that he was born around 540 BC and the he was son of King Anaxandrias II of Sparta, a descendant of Hercules, according to the myth.
Leonidas was married to Gorgo and had a son. He must have succeeded his half-brother to the throne at around 488 BC, till his death in 480 BC. His name meant either "the son of a lion" or "like a lion".

May 15, 2010

Strange Facts


A Crocodiles tongue is attached to the roof of its mouth.
A kangaroo cannot jump unless its tail is touching the ground.
A quarter of Russia is covered by forest.
A rat can last longer with out water than a camel.
A shark can grow a new set of teeth in a week.
A snail can have about 25,000 teeth.
About 300 million cells die in our body every minute.
About 3000 years ago, most Egyptians died by the time they were thirty.
About 70% of all living organisms in the world are bacteria.
About 85% of the plant life on the Earth is in the ocean.
Albert Einstein was offered the presidency of Israel in 1952.
Alf Hitchcock didn't have belly button. It was eliminated after surgery.
All 17 children of Queen Anne dies before she did.
Actor Tommy Lee Jones and vice president Al Gore were roommates at Harvard.
Al Capone's business card said he was a used furniture dealer.
Canada is an Indian word meaning Big Village.
Canada has more lakes that the rest of the world combined.
According to Genesis 1:2022 the chicken came before the egg.
Peanuts are one of the ingredients of dynamite.
All of the clocks in the movie "Pulp Fiction" are stuck on 4:20.
It's impossible to sneeze with our eyes open.
In ancient Egypt, killing a cat was a crime punishable by death.
It is illegal to be a prostitute in Siena, Italy, if your name is Mary.
Leonardo Da Vinci could write with one had and draw with the other at the same time.
Li is the family name for over 87 million People in China.

Garrincha (read it all, it is worth it)


Garrincha is perhaps the most underrated player ever. Some fans may not have even heard his name before. Yet he is considered among experts to be the best ever even from Pele. He is probably the greatest dribbler of the ball in footballing history.
His crossing abilities and dead-ball skills are also among the best football has ever witnessed.

Born Manuel Francisco dos Santos on October 28, 1933, "Garrincha" was born with several defects. His left leg was six centimetres shorter than his right leg, and curved unnaturally outwards. His right leg bent inwards, and his spine was deformed.

Scouts all over Brazil knew of him, and he was something of a legend between them. Many refused to believe the stories about him until they saw him themselves. One is quoted as saying "there is an unknown player who lives in the woods, has bent legs, is totally un-markable and dribbles like the devil."

Eventually scouts saw him, then believed. His immense talent was showing through at even this young age. However, it took time to convince Garrincha to play professionally. At 19 years old, he signed a contract with Botafogo. He was already married with a child.

In his debut first-team game of his career he scored a hat-trick.

In 1955 he gained his first Brazil cap. He was finally judged to have impressed enough to make it into the national squad and was given his debut against Chile.

For the next few years, Garrincha was in and out of the Brazilian team and continuing to mesmerize the fans with his ball control. In 1957 he helped Botafogo to win the Campeonato Carioca.

The following year he was selected in the Brazilian squad for the 1958 World Cup. However, he was left out of the first two games, reportedly due to his coaches punishing him for irresponsible play in a goal he scored a month previously in a friendly game.

This is one of his most famous goals. He was facing Fiorentina and got the ball, dribbled past four defenders and then the 'keeper. With the goal gaping in front of him, Garrincha didn't put the ball in. He wasn't finished toying with the defenders yet.
He waited for the defence to come back, before dribbling it around another defender and only then did he put them out of their misery.

He was included for the third match of Brazil's World Cup campaign, as was Pele. This would be the first match Garrincha and Pele would play together, a combination that was one of the most feared of all time.

He helped Brazil to a 2-0 win over the USSR. His leg deformities seemed to actually help his football abilities rather than hinder them.

After he gave Welsh fullback Mel Hopkins a torrid time in the quarter final, Hopkins had this to say: "He's a phenomenon, capable of sheer magic. It was difficult to know which way he was going to go because of his legs and because he was as comfortable on his left foot as his right, so he could cut inside or go down the line and he had a ferocious shot too."

In the final Garrincha set up the two Brazil goals which led them to World Cup glory. At the final whistle and the celebrations, Garrincha was reportedly bemused. He thought it was a league competition and they would have to play everyone twice.

Despite his lack of desire to know the "details" of the game, Garrincha was named in the World Cup All-Star team.

He also won silverware with his club in 1958, triumphing in the Oswaldo Cruz Cup. He followed this up with success in the O'Higgins Cup the next year.

However, this was a rare highlight in 1959 for Garrincha. He began drinking more than before, putting on weight and often being found in a drunken state. One night he got into a car drunk, and drove off with an angry mob chasing him. He ran over his father but didn't stop.

When he was later halted, he had no recollection of what had occurred. But his problems off the pitch were soon overshadowed by his performances on it again. In 1961 he won the Campeonato Carioca, the O'Higgins Cup and the Oswald Cruz Cup with Botafogo.

But 1962 was to be his best year. At club level he was simply unplayable, helping his team to another Campeonato Carioca, another Oswaldo Cruz Cup, and a first Torneio Rio-Sao Paulo.

But this was nothing compared to his success internationally. At the World Cup he was on the best form of his career. He was scoring freely, with both feet and his head, and laying on yet more goals.

He was the stand-out performer of the World Cup as Brazil went onto win. Garrincha had won his second consecutive World Cup, and was named Player of the World Cup, World Cup joint Top Scorer and World Player of the Year.

He stayed at Botafogo until 1965, winning another Torneio Rio-Sao Paulo before he left for Corinthians. In his time at Botafogo he scored 232 goals in 581 appearances. He never reached the heights of 1962 again, moving from club to club between 1966 and his eventual retirement in 1973.

Despite this he was named in the 1966 Brazilian World Cup squad. He played two matches, bringing his total number of caps up to 50. His last match for Brazil was against Hungary in which they lost 3-1. It was the first and only game Brazil lost while Garrincha was playing for them.

Pele was not playing in that game, which meant him and Garrincha share a rare record of having never lost when playing together.

Garrincha's story after he retired from football is a tragic one. He became an alcoholic, and was involved in numerous car-accidents, one of which his mother-in-law was killed in. He died on January 19, 1983, aged 49, and the world was left to mourn one of the greatest footballers ever.

Hugely underrated yet immeasurably talented, this has been a tribute to Garrincha.

Euclid of Alexandria


Euclid of Alexandria lived in 365 - 300 BC (approximately). Very little is known about Euclid's life except that he taught in Alexandria, Egypt. He may have become educated at Plato's Academy in Athens, or possibly from some of Plato's students. Basically, all of the rules we use in Geometry today are based on the writings of Euclid, specifically 'The Elements'. The Elements includes the following Volumes:
Volumes 1-6: Plane Geometry
Volumes 7-9: Number Theory
Volume 10: Eudoxus' Theory of Irrational Numbers
Volumes 11-13: Solid Geometry
The first edition of the Elements was actually printed in 1482 in a very logical, coherent framework. More than one thousand editions have been printed throughout the decades. Schools only stopped using the Elements in the early 1900s, some were still using it in the early 1980's, however, the theories continue to be those that we use today.

Euclid's book the Elements also contains the beginnings of number theory. The Euclidean algorithm which is often referred to as Euclid's algorithm is used to determine the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two integers. It is one of the oldest algorithms known, and was included in Euclid's Elements. Euclid's algorithm does not require factoring.

He is famous for his treatise on geometry: The Elements. The Elements makes Euclid one of if not the most famous mathematics teacher. The knowledge in the Elements has been the foundation for teachers of mathematics for over 2000 years!

Geometry Tutorials like these wouldn't be possible without the work of Euclid.

May 14, 2010

Will Carling


William David Charles Carling, OBE (born 12 December 1965) is a former Rugby union player for Harlequins, and a former captain of England from 1988 to 1996, winning 72 caps.
He was the youngest ever England captain at age 22 and was at the time the most successful ever, seeing them to back-to-back Five Nations grand slam victories (1991, 1992), and the final of the 1991 Rugby World Cup.

Playing career
Position Centre
Professional / senior clubs
Years Club / team
National team(s)
Years Club / team
1993 England
British and Irish Lions



Panathinaikos Sports Club (Greek: Παναθηναϊκός Αθλητικός Όμιλος, Panathinaikos Athlitikos Omilos, i.e. Pan-Athenian Athletic Club) is a sport organisation and the biggest sport club in Greece. It was founded by George Kalafatis in 1908. It is often referred to by its initials, PAO. The club emblem is the three-leaf clover in green.
Over the years Panathinaikos has established departments in 24 different sports, with some of them being inactive at present. Overall these are or were:

Panathinaikos A.C. (PAO)

Established 1908
Club colours Green and white

Websites Football: http://www.pao.gr/
Basketball: http://www.paobc.gr/
Volleyball: http://www.paovolleyball.gr/
Amateur departments:
Football, established in 1908

Athletics (track and field), established in 1919
Volleyball, established in 1919
Basketball, established in 1922
Table tennis, established in 1924
Cycling, established in 1928
Shooting, established in 1928
Field hockey, established in 1928 (inactive)
Swimming, established in 1930
Water Polo, established in 1930
Handball, established in 1930 (inactive)
Boxing, established in 1946
Diving, established in 1947
Chess, established in 1959
Weightlifting, established in 1959
Fencing, established in 1960
Gymnastics, established in 1962
Waterskiing, established in 1963 (inactive)
Wrestling, established in 1965
Modern pentathlon, established in 1978
Judo, established in 1980 (inactive)
Archery, established in 1981
Futsal, established in 1990
Synchronized swimming, established in 1992

Economic Thought Of Aristotle and Plato


Aristotle and Plato con­tained important economic ideas, and became a distinct factor in shaping economic doctrines.

Origin of the State; First Economic Interpretation of His­tory. — One of the striking facts about the political thought of certain Greek thinkers is that it rests upon what may be truly called an economic interpretation of history. To be sure, the Athenian philosopher's conception of history was imperfect, and by an economic interpretation is not meant a materialistic one; but with these modifications, the statement is broadly true. Witness the following from Plato: "A State, . . . arises, as I conceive, out of the needs of mankind; no one is self-sufficing, but all of us have many wants. . . . Then, as we have many wants, and many persons are needed to supply them, one takes a helper for one purpose and another for another; and when these partners and helpers are gathered together in one habita­tion the body of inhabitants is termed a State. . . . And they exchange with one another, and one gives, and another receives, under the idea that the exchange will be for their good." The origin of the state, then, is traced to the lack of individual self-sufficiency in the satisfaction of wants, and to the ad­vantage of specialization and exchange. Such reasoning indi­cates an important step toward the development of economic analysis.

On this point, the doctrine of Aristotle, who was probably the greatest of all the thinkers of antiquity, begins in a less purely rational way. He assumes that an impulse to political association is innate in all men: "Man is naturally a social animal." The genesis of the state, however, is found in the household, which, in its turn, rests upon the inability of male and female to exist independently, and upon the inequality among men which leads to slavery. The household is "the association naturally formed for the supply of everyday wants." Then comes the village, and finally the state: "Lastly, the association composed of several villages in its complete form is the State, in which the goal of full independence may be said to be first attained." The state is formed to make life possible.

Sir Richard Branson


Charismatic entrepreneur Richard Branson (born 1950) became well known when his daredevil business tactics were upstaged by his death defying antics as a sportsman.

Founder and mastermind of the Virgin business enterprise, Richard Branson hewed a reputation as one of the most popular personalities in all of England. The charismatic Branson attracted crowds and media attention everywhere, not only in the course of his business exploits but also for his adventurous lifestyle. At the height of his popularity, Branson's name was touted for prime minister, and even monarch, of his native Britain. Tongue-and-cheek aside, Branson's financial escapades were serious business, and his adventurous personal nature projected an aura that seemed larger than life.

Richard Branson was born on July 18, 1950 into a middle class family in the English county of Surrey. Branson was the oldest of three siblings. His father, Edward (Ted) Branson was an attorney, in the tradition of the Branson family ancestry

Adam Smith (1723–1790)


Perhaps the best known and one of the most revered economists, Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776, the same year the Declaration of Independence was signed. In this famous work, Smith explained how an independent society works. He answered several questions that people had at the time regarding the concepts of a free-market system.

Of primary concern was the question of how those consumed with greed might be controlled so they wouldn't take over society. Smith introduced the concept of competition. Anyone bent on bettering only him- or herself with no regard for others will be confronted by others with the same goals. In this new system, those who are buying or selling are forced to meet the prices offered by competitors.

Smith also illustrated that a market system also has another important function. That function is to produce goods and services that society wants, and in quantities that society wants. A good example of this is when products such as hula-hoops, cabbage patch dolls, or beanie babies became the rage, there weren't enough being produced to satisfy all the potential buyers. As a result, the manufacturers had to increase production and were also able to increase prices because the demand for the products was so great and buyers were willing to pay higher prices. In fact, many buyers bought quantities they didn't need precisely so they could, in turn, sell the high-demand products to others who were willing to pay the higher price. That is the capitalistic market system.

Smith was extremely visionary and foresaw that if a free market is to grow and prosper, there must be little government intervention. He saw that a free market must be self-regulating in order to become wealthy and robust. He made it clear that it was truly individuals' greed and desire for profits that would create a working free-enterprise system that is self-regulating.

John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946)


John Maynard Keynes was the father of a "mixed economy" in which the government plays a crucial role. Many believe that government should not have a role in a capitalistic system, viewing such a role with considerable distrust and suspicion. As a result, many find Keynes's theories to be as offensive as those of Marx.

One of the main tenets of Keynes's theory—in conflict with both Smith and Marx—is that economic problems in a capitalistic society are not self-correcting and that economies cannot keep growing indefinitely. He believed that if there is nothing to support capital growth, a depressed economy requires outside intervention or a substitute for business capital spending. Keynes believed that only government intervention could get a country out of a depression and the economy back on track.



Economics has been around since the beginning of time, but the study of economics dates back only a few hundred years. Since the beginning of human history, people have had to confront the problem of scarce resources and unlimited wants. The study of economics will continue until the end of time because each day uncovers new evidence that supports or revolutionizes economic theory.